Twitter is one of the smallest social networks in terms of daily active users (152 M) and revenue (US$ 3.5B in 2019). Compare this with Facebook’s 1.8B daily active users (US$ 71B revenue in 2019) or even with TikTok’s 800M daily active users. Yet, Twitter has a disproportional impact on…

In 1986, the moral philosopher Harry Frankfurt published his famous essay On Bullshit in the Raritan Review.[1] Bullshitting, he says, is making a statement without regard for its truth value, in order to achieve some concealed goal. Politics and advertising, he said, are fields with a lot of bullshit.


Roel Wieringa

Professor emeritus Information Systems, University of Twente, The Netherlands. Co-founder and Director, The Value Engineers (

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